- Learn about Eos
- About eosinophils
- About EGIDs
- About HES
- About CSS
- Other Diseases
- Just For Kids
- Webinars & Videos
- Faces of Eos
- School Advocacy
- Getting Started
- Section 504 Eligibility
- IEP Eligibility
- Elementary School
- Middle and High School
- Postsecondary Schools
- Info for School Staff
- Guidelines for Students
- Templates and Forms
- Free EpiPens for Schools
- What to Ask (EGIDs)
- Feeding Tubes
- For Children
- Health Info Sheet
- Insurance Assistance
- Nutrition & Recipes
- Support Groups
- School Advocacy
- Healthcare Professionals
- Annual Conference
- Get Involved
To find a specific term or abbreviation, click the starting letter of the term or abbreviation.
A - C
Also called the "belly," this is the part of the body that includes the area approximately from the chest to the hips.
Scar tissue that forms on the external surface of the intestine causing it to become stuck to an adjacent structure. Adhesions may cause partial obstructions by deforming part of the intestinal tract and may form after an abdominal operation.
Adrenal glands produce insufficient quantities of regulatory hormones leading to low blood pressure, low blood sugar and fatigue (weakness) particularly during times of illness.
Adrenal insufficiency related to long-term systemic steroid use. Symptoms similar to primary adrenal insufficiency.
A protein that induces an immediate (IgE) or late (cell mediated) allergic reaction.
Sneezing, stuffy and/or runny nose triggered by inhaled allergens.
A physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders, including asthma, allergic skin rashes, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies.
An abnormal immune system response to any stimulus that can take any of 4 different types of reaction characteristics (Immediate/IgE-Mediated, Cytotoxic, Immune Complex-Mediated or Delayed/Cell-Mediated); the classic working definition used by most physicians only includes immediate response allergic reactions (IgE-Mediated).
Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins. Some amino acids also function as chemical signals, such as neurotransmitters.
The digestive enzyme needed to digest starches (complex carbohydrates). This enzyme is produced by the pancreas and is also found in the saliva.
A crack in the skin tissue of the anus. Fissures may bleed and become irritated or infected with bowel movements, therefore good hygiene habits are necessary.
Anemia refers to low red blood cell and low hemoglobin level count. There are many causes of anemia, the most common of which is iron deficiency.
Loss of appetite from any cause. It can have physiologic and/or psychologic components.
A psychological disorder of body image in which the individual feels overweight regardless of actual weight. Persons affected by this disorder have a fear of gaining weight and may use excessive exercise, laxatives and/or skipping of meals in order to achieve what they perceive as an ideal body weight and image. Complications may include nutritional deficiencies, osteoporosis, organ dysfunction or failure, and in extreme cases, coma and/or death.
A medication that blocks the action of histamine in the body. Typical uses of Histamine subtype 1 blockers (H1 Blockers) include stopping or decreasing allergic reactions such as hives, allergic rhinitis, and/or eczema, decreasing nausea and dizziness associated with motion sickness or chemotherapy drugs, and helping with sleep problems. Non-sedating antihistamines are relatively new and are used for daytime allergy sufferers. Typical uses for histamine subtype 2 blockers (H2 Blockers) which block acid effects include stomach ulcers, heartburn and GERD.
An opening in the rectum that allows stool to move out of the body (bowel movement). Common problems with the anus are hemorrhoids, abscesses, and fissures (cracks).
An infection of the appendix with symptoms such as severe pain in the lower right part of the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and/or fever; surgical removal of the appendix should be done immediately to prevent a bursting of the infected appendix.
The appendix is found at the junction between the large intestine and the small intestine, and is usually found in the lower right side of the abdomen. It has no known function. It is removed surgically if it becomes inflamed/infected (appendicitis).
The part of the large intestine located on the right side of the abdomen that attaches the cecum with the hepatic flexure at the start of the transverse colon.
A collection of fluid in the abdomen.
A disorder causing the airways to become inflamed and narrowed due to mucous production and leads to symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing and chest tightness. Asthma is can be triggered by an inhaled allergen.
Absence of symptoms.
A disease in which a part of the body's immune system attacks its own cells that make up part of the body, such as skin, connective or joint tissue, intestinal tissue, nerve cells , etc.
A test in which X-rays are taken after one has swallowed some a liquid radio-contrast material called barium. The test is used to diagnose and determine the extent of swallowing problems. See also Upper GI X-Ray.
A condition in which the inner lining of the esophagus becomes damaged due to stomach acid refluxing into the lower part of the esophagus. The condition is believed to increase the chances of getting esophageal cancer.
A digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is needed for proper digestion of fats. Bile is re-absorbed in the small intestine and recycled back to the liver.
A tube that connects the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Its function is to allow bile to flow into the small intestine.
Referring to any duct or organ in the biliary system; the bile ducts, liver and/or gallbladder.
A tissue sample. In the case of digestive diseases, the biopsy is usually painless and is taken from the inner layers of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines during endoscopy and colonoscopy procedures. See also Full Thickness Biopsy.
A puffing up of the abdomen, usually caused by excess gas that has accumulated in the small and/or large intestines. Lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, and other intestinal disorders may increase one's likelihood of experiencing bloating. Gassy foods such as beans, peanuts, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale and related foods may lead to bloating from fermentation of a certain carbohydrate that is high in these foods. Also, improper digestion of other nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, proteins) may cause bloating.
See DEXA Scan.
A species of yeast that is normally present on skin and in intestinal contents. It can cause superficial infections of the lining of the mouth (called thrush), esophagus, vagina, and skin during or shortly after a courses of antibiotics. More serious infections of tissues or the blood stream occur in immunocompromised individuals.
Any substance that has a molecular structure based on sugar, including sugar, glucose, fructose, etc., as well as more complex starches found in plant food sources (fruits, grains, vegetables, etc.).
See CT Scan.
Complete Blood Count ( blood test that includes a count of all the red and white blood cells, platelets as well as hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Statistics about the red blood cells are also calculated and included in the test results.
The cecum is the start of the large intestine. Undigested food from the small intestine enter the cecum, and digestion is continued through the large intestine. The cecum is located in the lower right side of the abdomen, and the appendix is attached to the bottom of the cecum.
An autoimmune disease that damages the inner portion of the small intestine (duodenum), and causes malabsorbtion, causing malnourishment. The reaction is caused by eating foods that have gluten in them. Gluten is found in wheat, rye, and barley, and possibly can contaminate oats. Symptoms of celiac disease include nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, and malabsorption. These symptoms subside when gluten containing grains are not avoided. The inside of the small intestine has small, finger-like projections called villi, that help with absorption of nutrients. Flattened villi are often associated with the disease, and their appearance on biopsy/endoscopic evaluation is considered the gold standard for diagnosis in a person who is consuming gluten containing foods. Blood antibodies to the gluten and/or gliadin may also assist with diagnosis.
Period of time during which signs and symptoms of disease are absent.
Inflammation of the tissues of the large intestine.
See Large Intestine.
A procedure in which a camera on the end of a lighted tube, an endoscope, is inserted through the anus and rectum and is used to view the inside of the entire large intestine and sometimes the terminal ileum. Biopsies of the mucosal layers within the large intestine or terminal ileum of the small intestine may be taken during the colonoscopic procedure. Preparation involves the use of pergatives to clear out waste from the large intestine and avoiding food and drink for at least 12 hours before the procedure. One is usually given a sedative prior to the procedure.
A surgically created hole in the abdomen in which a part of the colon is brought through to the skin surface. A bag must be worn over the hole to collect bowel movements. A temporary colostomy may be needed to allow some bowel tissue to heal after chronic inflammation has been treated.
A type of sedation for medical procedures using medications at a dose allowing spontaneous breathing with minimal awareness See Steroid.
Also called Regional Enteritis. A form of IBD in which inflammation occurs in a patchy pattern in one or more layers of any part of the digestive system (from mouth to anus; most common locations are the terminal ileum and large intestine). There is no known cause or cure; genetic inheritance is common and there are genetic differences between those with and without the disease.
Computed Tomography, also called Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan), is a special type of X-Ray that results in a series of cross-sectional pictures of the joint, bone or other area being scanned. CT images are able to show blood vessels, and they provide more details about bones than some other forms of imaging. CT Scans also show the relationships between soft tissue and bone.
Excess cortisol production by the body.
Episodic bouts of vomiting, sometimes severe, interspersed with periods of wellness
D - F
The part of the large intestine located on the left side of the abdomen that connects the transverse colon at the splenic flexure with the sigmoid colon at the sigmoid flexure.
Release of the contents (granules) of the cell.
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, a special type of X-ray that can tell the density of bones. The test is painless, just like getting an X-Ray. The typical areas scanned during the test include the hip bone, lumbar spine, and/or the wrist or forearm.
A muscular and connective tissue structure separating the chest and abdominal cavities. The diaphragm contracts and expands in correlation with the lungs during breathing.
All of the muscular organs involved in eating, digesting foods and eliminating solid food wastes, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
Inflammation of the duodenum.
The upper part of the small intestine that connects the lower part of the stomach with the jejunum.
Abnormal motility. In reference to the GI tract, food moves more slowly than normal through the esophagus, stomach and/or intestines.
Discomfort in the stomach marked by symptoms of nausea, loss of appetite, bloating, belching and/or flatulence, change in bowel habits, heartburn, reflux, and/or a gnawing or burning sensation in the stomach area. Causes may include insufficient digestive enzymes or HCl, ulcer, esophageal spasms, intestinal obstruction or other motility problem, IBS, gallstones, lactose intolerance, heart problems, or other causes.
Difficulty swallowing liquid or solid food through any part of the esophagus.
Inflammatory condition of the skin with redness, scaling and often itching. May be related to allergies, infection, diabetes or environmental changes.
Swelling or water retention.
Essential Fatty Acid, the nutritional component of fats and oils found in many foods. There are different types of fatty acids, the most common of which are Omega-3 and Omega-6. Fatty acids are converted in the body to numerous substances critical to our health. Omega-3 fatty acids may be converted into anti-inflammatory immune system components, and Omega-6 fatty acids get converted into anti- and pro-inflammatory immune system components. Consuming these two fatty acids in the proper balance is important for optimum health.
Nutritionally complete formulas whose protein component is provided as amino acids to reduce the chance of an allergic reaction. Formulas are used for tube feedings and to decrease the symptoms of food allergy, Eosinophilic Enteritis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and other diseases.
A diet in which specific food antigens have been eliminated in order to decrease the chance of having an allergic reaction.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, a type of blood test in which subclasses of immunoglobulins may be detected; the test is used to detect IgE-Mediated (immediate reaction) and IgG-Mediated (delayed reaction) allergies and is helpful in diagnosing some autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, viral illness and many others.
A tube with a light and a camera on the end of it that is used to view the esophagus, stomach, part of the duodenum, part of the terminal ileum and the entire large intestine. Endoscopes usually also contain a biopsy aspiration port for collection of tissue samples during endoscopic procedures. See also Colonoscopy, Endoscopy, Esophagoscopy, and Sigmoidoscopy.
A procedure in which an endoscope is passed through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach and part of the duodenum. Biopsies may be taken of the mucosal layers during this procedure. The patient is typically sedated during the procedure. The only preparation is avoiding all food and liquids for at least 4-8 hours before the procedure.
Administration of medication through the rectum for the purpose of clearing out the bowel Nutrition feedings through a tube that either goes through the mouth, nose, stomach or small intestine. The feedings are made of a special liquid that may contain all the nutrients a person needs. Nutrition obtained through the digestive system, either eaten through the mouth or through a feeding tube. See also GJ, GT, JT, ND, NG, and Tube Feeding.
Inflammation in the tissues of the digestive system, especially the small intestine.
Enzymes are a type of catalyst, which means they speed up chemical reactions. In the case of digestive enzymes, they speed up the digestion or breaking down of food into nutritional components such as fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins and minerals. When the organs which produce digestive enzymes are not producing sufficient quantities, a supplemental form of digestive enzymes may be needed for proper digestion to occur. Some metabolic disorders involve the lack of a certain enzyme needed for processing or metabolizing specific food components.
A type of white blood cell that is specifically involved in allergic reactions (IgE-Mediated), and also seems to be involved in some parasitic infections.
A disease involving patchy infiltration of one or more layers of the large intestine with eosinophils. See also Eosinophilic Enteritis.
A disease involving patchy infiltration of one or more layers of the esophagus with eosinophils. See also Eosinophilic Enteritis.
A disease involving patchy infiltration of one or more layers of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and/or large intestine with eosinophils. Some cases are genetic, some are caused by parasitic infection, some have no known/identified cause. In some cases, a correlation between tissue and blood eosinophil levels occurs. In some cases, specific foods have been known to trigger the activity of the eosinophils. It is possible to have more than one type and location of the disease. Also, food allergies and/or asthma may accompany the disease.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography, a diagnostic test done during an endoscopy procedure that involves a tube that can go into the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts to look at the health of the ducts and the liver, gallbladder and pancreas glands themselves.
A red blood cell.
See Schatzki's Ring.
Non-surgical stretching of an esophageal stricture. May be accomplished by one of several different techniques.
An area of narrowing of the esophageal lumen. See also Stricture.
A membrane that appears in the esophagus, causing dysphagia. The web may be broken via an endoscopic procedure.
Inflammation in the tissue of the esophagus.
A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the esophagus through the mouth for diagnostic purposes or to perform antireflux surgery, dilate rings or strictures, break up webs, or other necessary procedures.
The muscular tube that connects the back of the mouth to the top of the stomach that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, also called "Sed Rate," the rate at which red blood cells in a measured sample settle in a specific amount of time. The higher the ESR, the faster the red blood cells settled. An elevated ESR usually indicates inflammation. The ESR is only a general measure of inflammation, therefore it does not say anything about the location or severity of inflammation.
The cause or triggering factor for development of a specific disease. When a specific etiology is not obvious, the condition is said to be idiopathic.
A general term used for insufficient growth (by standard growth charts) or inadequate weight gain caused by a variety of medical and psychosocial conditions.
A dietary substance that is broken down in the body to fatty acids. See also EFA.
A compaction of feces in one location such that the movement of foodstuff and waste is restricted or severely limited. Usually requires a stool softener or manual disimpaction to alleviate the problem. A diet high in fiber along with sufficient water intake (8-10 glasses of water per day) will usually prevent fecal impaction.
An abnormal tract formed between loops of bowel, the bowel and other organs or the bowel and the skin surface. Fistulas are normally associated with severe Crohn's Disease, but possibly might also occur with other full-thickness inflammatory conditions. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications are typically required for treatment, and placement of a drain or surgical treatment may also be necessary.
A time during which active disease is present.
Passing gas through the anus. May be accompanied by bloating, indigestion and/or other symptoms.
A normal bend in a tubular body structure such as the large intestines.
G - I
A saclike organ located just underneath the liver, the gallbladder serves as a storage location for bile that the liver produces.
Inflammation of the stomach.
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the digestive system, also including disorders of the liver, spleen and pancreas.
A disease in which acid reflux and heartburn occur frequently over an extended period of time.
Abnormally slow emptying of the contents of the stomach.
See Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.
Gastro-Intestinal Tract, also called the digestive system.
Gastrojejunostomy Tube, which is a tube that is surgically inserted through the skin into the stomach and runs to the small intestine; this is done so that liquid food may be pumped directly into the small intestine, bypassing the esophagus and stomach. Conversion of a GT or a GJ can be done under X-Ray guidance, at endoscopy, or surgically.
A type of protein found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats; corn and rice have small amounts of a seemingly different type of gluten that does not seem to cause symptoms in people with Celiac disease or gluten intolerance.
Synonym for celiac disease.
Gastric Tube, which is a tube that has been surgically inserted through the skin into the stomach so that liquid food may be pumped directly into the stomach bypassing the esophagus.
A bacteria normally found in the digestive system; when present in large enough numbers, the bacteria causes most cases of ulcers in the stomach and duodenum.
Hydrochloric acid is the acid produced by cells in the lining of the stomach. When present, it aids in the initial stages of protein digestion, but is not required for complete protein digestion.
See Acid Reflux and GERD.
Referring to the liver.
The bend in the large intestine that is located on the right side of the abdomen just under the liver and connects the ascending colon with the transverse colon.
A condition in which a small part of the upper stomach pushes through the diaphragm. A sliding hiatal hernia is usually asymptomatic or only causes occasional minor heartburn. A non-sliding hiatal hernia may easily become strangulated, thus requiring surgical correction to prevent potentially serious complications.
A spasm of the diaphragm.
Magnified 400-fold under the microscope.
Subtype one is a proinflammatory immune system modulator released during inflammatory and allergic processes. Subtype 2 is a chemical messenger that tells the proton pumps in the stomach to release stomach acid.
An increase in the number of cells in an organ which leads to increased thickness or size of the organ.
Low potential to cause allergic reactions.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
No obvious cause.
Antibodies; specialized proteins, produced by certain specialized white blood cells, that recognize and attach to bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, and toxins to begin their destruction.
IgA Antibody types secreted into body fluids such as tears and saliva.
IgE Predominant antibody type in involved in allergic reactions.
IgG Predominant antibody type in blood.
A muscle valve at the connection point between the large and small intestines, located in the cecum.
A surgically created hole in the abdomen in which a part of the small intestine is brought through to the skin surface. A bag must be worn over the hole to collect bowel movements. A temporary ileostomy may be needed to allow some bowel tissue to heal after chronic inflammation has been treated.
A temporary lack of sufficient peristalsis in the intestines. Surgery, intestinal obstruction and other problems may be the cause. Symptoms typically include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, lack of bowel movements and no passing gas.
The last part of the small intestine, it connects the jejunum with the large intestine.
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases involving the immune system. Some Immunologists are also called Environmental Medicine Specialists.
A type of medication, sometimes also known as Chemotherapy medication, that suppresses certain specific parts of the immune system to achieve disease control. Such medications are typically used in treating autoimmune diseases, cancer and organ transplant rejection.
A non-specific term describing a reaction at the cellular level resulting from injury or irritation. Inflammatory responses lead to repair. Inflammation can occur anywhere in the body and from many different causes.
A disease in which chronic inflammation of the digestive system occurs; Two specific types of IBD are identified, Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome, also incorrectly called "spastic colon." A functional disorder in which constipation and/or diarrhea or alternating between the two seems to occur frequently. Inflammation is not part of IBS. Lactose Intolerance and other food allergies or intolerances seem to be associated with the syndrome, and Candida Albicans or other intestinal bacterial imbalance may also be associated. Test results are typically normal. There is no known cure.
Symptoms that develop in response to the ingestion of dietary substances.
Telescoping or folding of the intestines within itself
J - L
A tube surgically inserted through the skin and into the small intestines to enable liquid feeding (or elemental formula) directly into the small intestine bypassing the esophagus and stomach.
The middle part of the small intestine.
Symptoms of flatulence, abdominal cramps, and/or diarrhea after the ingestion of lactose (milk sugar). Individuals who are deficient inn the intestinal enzyme lactase, do not digest or absorb lactose properly. Malabsorbed lactose reaches the large intestine and is fermented by bacteria. Byproducts of the fermentation process cause symptoms.
See Large Intestine
A long muscular tube that connects the small intestine with the anus.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter, the valve that is located at the bottom of the esophagus just where it is connected to the stomach. Improper function of the LES can cause acid reflux.
A proinflammatory immune system modulator that is released during and after allergic reactions and is also believed to be partly responsible for prolonging other types of inflammation. Leukotrienes are involved in Asthma, IBD and other inflammatory diseases.
A medication that prevents the release of leukotrienes or prevents their proinflammatory action in the body. Several different subtypes of leukotrienes have been identified in association with various inflammatory diseases, hence the development of various different types of leukotriene inhibitor medications.
The digestive enzyme needed to properly digest lipids, or fats. This enzyme is produced by the pancreas; bile is also needed to digest fats.
The liver is a large solid organ in the right upper corner of the abdomen, protected by the rib cage. It performs thousands of individual biochemical functions including the production of numerous blood protein components, the breakdown and excretion of numerous substances, the storage of carbohydrate for use as "fuel" for he body between meals, and the production and excretion of bile.
See Lower GI X-Ray.
A series of X-rays taken of the large intestine after a liquid solution of barium has been put into the large intestine via enema.
The hollow portion of a tubular body structure, such as a blood vessel, the intestines, and the esophagus.
M - O
Inability to absorb sufficient nutrients, either certain specific nutrients or all nutrients in general, from one's typical diet.
A cellular component of the immune system that resides in tissue. When attached to an IgE-Antibody combination, releases mediators of allergic reactions, including leukotrienes, histamine and other mediators.
A type of medication that helps prevent mast cells from releasing allergic reaction mediators.
Disorders in which the production or breakdown of one or more specific chemical substance(s) within the body is abnormal due to a genetic alteration in a single enzyme.
The coordinated neuromuscular activity of the wall of the GI tract that moves intestinal contents.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a computer-assisted imaging technique that is free of radiation (unlike CT Scans). Sometimes, an MRI may be done using a contrast dye in order to enhance specific body structures. Images are produced in cross-sectional pictures of the part of the body being scanned. MRI Scans are used to view soft tissue and bone, including a wide variety of problems; for example, fractures, tumors, abdominal problems, and some nerve problems can all be examined via MRI.
The innermost layer of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. This layer is visible on endoscopic or colonoscopic examination. The submucosa is just underneath the mucosa. The mucosa and submucosa can be biopsied via colonoscopic or endoscopic procedure.
The middle layer of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. This layer cannot be biopsied via standard biopsy means. A Full Thickness Biopsy is typically required to obtain a tissue sample containing the muscularis layer.
Naso-Duodenal Tube, a tube which is inserted through one nostril of the nose and runs down the esophagus, through the stomach and into the duodenum. Liquid food (or formula) is pumped through the tube directly into the duodenum, bypassing the esophagus and stomach.
Naso-Gastric Tube, which is a tube that has been inserted into one nostril that runs down the esophagus into the stomach. Liquid food (formula) is pumped through the tube directly into the stomach bypassing the esophagus.
No food by mouth.
Decreased bone mass.
A loss of bone density. Some causes include a drop in testosterone or estrogen levels, certain medications, improper nutrition, malabsorption, certain diseases (IBD, Addison's Disease, Hypothyroid or Hyperparathyroid, etc.), and possibly other causes. Protein deficiency can lead to loss of bone density, as can calcium and other mineral deficiencies. A Bone Density Test (DEXA Scan) is required for diagnosis. Special Osteoporosis medication may be needed to slow the progression of bone density loss.
Any type of surgical procedure that creates a hole in the abdominal wall. Examples include ileostomy and colostomy. See also Colostomy, Ileostomy, and Stoma.
P - R
A gland in the body located behind the stomach and extending towards the liver, the pancreas is responsible for producing and secreting some digestive enzymes and also insulin. Diabetes is a disease of the pancreas.
Enzymes produced and secreted by the pancreas that are needed for proper digestion.
Inflammation of the pancreas, sometimes caused by certain medications or alcoholism.
An organism that has invaded the body that normally does not live in the human body or human digestive system. Some parasites can cause eosinophilic infiltration of the digestive system, resulting in the development of Eosinophilic Enteritis.
Nutrition obtained through a vein. See also TPN.
Contraction of the muscles in the digestive system in a wavelike fashion, such that foodstuff is moved down from the mouth and through the stomach and intestinal tract for elimination through the rectum. Motility disorders typically cause abnormalities with paristalsis.
A membrane that encases mucous membrane structures such as the digestive system. See also Serosa.
Classically, PA is only used to describe an autoimmune disease in which the part of the stomach where intrinsic factor is secreted has been attacked by the body's immune system, rendering Vitamin B12 unabsorbable in the terminal ileum and thus causing anemia. However, some physicians also use PA to describe general Vitamin B12 deficiency regardless of the cause.
A growth or portion of abnormal tissue that extends from the digestive system wall into the hollow portion of the digestive system. Some are cancerous or pre-cancerous. Some are due to inflammation. Polypectomy may be performed during an endoscopy or colonoscopy procedure.
Removal of a polyp in the digestive system, usually during a colonoscopy or endoscopy procedure. A wire loop is placed over the polyp and then a very low electrical current is passed through the wire as the wire is moved such that the polyp is removed by the movement of the wire through the base of the polyp. The electrical current in the wire helps to cauterize the polyp removal location to reduce bleeding and prevent infection.
Protein Pump Inhibitor
A supplemental form of lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus bifidus, some soil-based organisms and/or other bacteria that are known to inhabit healthy small and/or large intestines.
A class of enzyme whose function is to digest other proteins.
A nutritional component required by the body to sustain life. Protein is made up of amino acids that have been connected together in a variety of configurations depending on the type of protein. Whole food proteins are believed to play a role in Eosinophilic Enteritis. See also Amino Acid.
Symptoms that develop after an immunologic reaction to one or more dietary proteins.
A condition in which IgG or other essential proteins are lost through the GI tract at a greater rate than the body can replenish, leading to muscle catabolism and other protein deficiency symptoms.
A medication that prevents the enzyme in the stomach lining (i.e., the proton pump) from releasing acid into the stomach.
Fixed narrowing of the muscle that controls the outlet of the stomach.
The muscle that surrounds and controls the outlet of the stomach (between the stomach and the duodenum).
Radioallergosorbant Test, a type of blood test that measures the amount of IgE antibody in the blood against specific food or environmental proteins.
The last part of the large intestine that connects to the anus.
Period of time when no disease activity is present.
Surgical removal of tissue.
A way of eating in which related foods are eaten on a rotating schedule. Typically, 3 days are given between eating each item from the same food "family." The purpose of this type of diet is to promote nutritional variety and to reduce the chances of developing allergies to certain foods.
S - U
Small Bowel Follow-Through, a series of X-rays taken after one drinks a large glass of liquid barium. See also Upper GI X-Ray.
A buildup of tissue at the lower end of the esophagus that interferes with passage of food.
Use of medication for a calming effect. Also see conscious sedation.
Also called the peritoneum. The serosa is the outermost layer of the GI tract. The subserosa is the layer just under the serosa. Both serosa and subserosa cannot be biopsied through an endoscopic or colonoscopic procedure.
Short Bowel Syndrome refers to the state in which an intestine is too short to normally perform all of its functions, and results from surgical resection or a birth defect in intestinal development.
See Short Bowel Syndrome.
A curved part of the large intestine that extends from the rectum to the descending colon on the left side of the abdomen and which includes the sigmoid flexure.
A short, flexible or rigid endoscope designed only to examine the rectum and sigmoid portion of the large intestine.
A procedure in which a flexible or rigid sigmoidoscope is inserted into the rectum and through the entire length of the sigmoid portion of the large intestine for examination and possible biopsy. Preparation includes an enema and mild laxative to clear waste from the sigmoid and rectal areas. Sedation may be used if needed.
See Small Intestine
A long muscular tube that connects the bottom of the stomach with the large intestine (large bowel).
The bend in the large intestine located in the left side of the abdomen (just under the stomach and spleen) where the ascending colon and transverse colon are connected.
Stool with excess fat in it, in the intestines from IBD, EE, etc.
Any type of narrowing of a tubular or hollow structure in the body, such as the intestinal tract or spinal column.
Steroid A type of medication that is a synthetic version of Cortisol or other hormones. When based on Cortisol, this type of medication suppresses the immune system and is therefore used to treat allergies, Asthma, EE, Autoimmune diseases, some forms of cancer, organ transplant rejection and other diseases, and to provide adrenal gland support in cases of adrenal insufficiency. If based on Estrogen, it is used as post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy.
A muscular pouch attached to the bottom of the esophagus where food is stored while it is being prepared for digestion and nutrient extraction in the small intestine.
A single point of narrowing in the digestive system like a string were tied around the outside of the tubular intestinal or esophageal area such that partial or total obstruction may occur.
A spasm of the muscles in the rectum and/or anus that is usually very painful. People with IBD and IBS may experience tenesmus as one symptom of their disease.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, an immune system component that is believed to be a critical factor involved in the inflammation associated with Crohn's Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis and possibly other autoimmune diseases.
Total Parenteral Nutrition. Complete nutrition (including fat, carbohydrate, animo acids, vitamins, minerals, and water) given as an intravenous infusion.
The part of the large intestine that connects the hepatic flexure with the splenic flexure and which lies across the abdomen from right to the left.
Any form of feeding of liquid meals through a tube, including GT, GJ, JT, ND and NG Tubes.
An area of variable size and depth in which the lining of the GI tract has eroded away.
A form of IBD in which inflammation occurs in a contiguous pattern in the inner layers of the large intestine.
See Upper GI X-Ray and SBFT
A series of X-rays taken of the esophagus and stomach after one drinks a large glass of liquid barium. If X-rays of the small bowel are also included, it is called an Upper GI X-Ray with Small Bowel Follow-Through.
V - Z
The tiny fingerlike projections on the inside of the small intestine wall that are responsible for nutrition absorption from the foods we eat. In some diseases, such as Celiac/Sprue and Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis, the villi can appear flattened on endoscopic and/or biopsy evaluation.
White Blood Cell, a type of blood cell that is involved in the immune system response to invading organisms (bacteria, virus or parasite). The different types of white blood cells include Basophils, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Monocytes.
White Blood Cell Count with Differential; a type of blood test in which the total number of white blood cells in a measured amount of blood are counted, and then each of the different types of white blood cells are counted and listed separately in the test results.
A type of radioactive picture taken of the body that enables the physician to see bones and some soft tissue. A contrast dye, barium or other medium may be used to enhance certain body structures in the X-Ray.
This document was revised in December 2004. Sources for all of the medical terms and definitions in this document include the Online Merck Manual 17th Edition, Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 24th edition, and other Internet medical websites. Any questions or comments about any of the definitions, terms or abbreviations included in this document should be directed to the author by email. Updated terms, February 5, 2002, under the direction of Philip E. Putnam, M.D., F.A.A.P.